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    12.1 解释绩效衡量的重要性

    • 精心设计的绩效衡量系统可帮助企业实现公司与员工之间的目标一致性。
    • 应仅根据管理者可以控制的因素对他们进行评估。
    • 绩效衡量标准可以基于财务指标和/或非财务衡量标准。
    • 绩效衡量系统应帮助公司实现其战略目标,同时帮助员工实现其职业目标。

    12.2 确定有效绩效衡量标准的特征

    • 良好的绩效衡量系统使用经理可以控制的衡量标准,提供及时和一致的反馈,将衡量标准与某种形式的标准进行比较,既有短期衡量标准,也有长期衡量标准,并将企业和个人的目标置于同等水平。

    12.3 使用投资回报率、剩余收益和经济增加值评估运营部门或项目

    • 基于财务数字的三个常见绩效衡量标准是投资回报率、剩余收入和经济增加值。
    • 投资回报率衡量公司利用其资产创造收入的有效性。
    • 投资回报率可以分为两个单独的衡量标准:销售利润率和资产周转率。
    • 剩余收入衡量一个项目或一个部门是否超过管理层确定的最低回报率。
    • 经济增加值用于衡量一个项目或部门对股东财富的贡献程度。
    • 投资回报率、投资回报率和EVA面临的一大挑战是确定在计算这些指标时使用哪种收入和资产的价值。

    12.4 描述平衡记分卡并解释如何使用它

    • 平衡记分卡使用财务和非财务衡量标准来评估员工。
    • 平衡记分卡的四个类别是财务视角、内部业务视角、客户视角以及学习和成长视角。
    • 财务前景指标通常是传统的衡量标准,基于财务报表信息,例如每股收益或投资回报率。
    • 内部业务视角衡量标准是评估管理层运营目标的衡量标准,例如质量控制或准时生产。
    • 客户视角衡量标准是评估客户如何看待业务以及企业如何与客户互动的衡量标准。
    • 学习和成长视角衡量标准是评估公司通过创新和创造价值实现增长的有效性的衡量标准。 这通常是通过员工培训来完成的。
    • 通过使用财务和非财务衡量标准,精心设计的平衡记分卡可以非常有效地实现目标一致性。


    after-tax income
    income reduced by tax expenses
    asset turnover
    measure of how efficiently a company is using its capital assets to generate revenues
    balanced scorecard
    tool used to evaluate performance using qualitative and nonqualitative measures
    capital asset
    tangible or intangible asset that has a life longer than one year
    controllable factor
    component of the organization for which the manager is responsible and that the manager can control
    cost center
    part of an organization in which management is evaluated based on the ability to contain costs; the manager primarily has control only over costs
    economic value added (EVA)
    measure of shareholder wealth that is being created by a project, segment, or division
    fixed asset
    tangible long-term asset
    goal congruence
    integration of multiple goals, either within an organization or across multiple components or entities; congruence is achieved by aligning goals to achieve an anticipated mission
    invested capital
    fixed assets, productive assets, or operating assets
    investment center
    organizational segment in which a manager is accountable for profits (revenues minus expenses) and the invested capital used by the segment
    means to measure something such as a goal or target
    minimum required rate of return
    minimum return, usually in a percentage form, that a project or investment must produce in order for the company to be willing to undertake it
    operating asset
    product asset plus intangible asset and current asset
    operating income
    income before considering interest and taxes
    performance measure
    metric used to evaluate a specific attribute of a manager’s role
    performance measurement system
    evaluates management in a way that will link the goals of the corporation with those of the manager
    productive asset
    fixed asset plus inventory
    profit center
    organizational segment in which a manager is responsible for and evaluted on both revenues and costs
    qualitative factor
    component of a decision-making process that cannot be measured numerically
    quantitative factor
    component of a decision-making process that can be measured numerically
    residual income (RI)
    amount of income a given division (or project) is expected to earn in excess of a firm’s minimum return goal
    responsibility accounting
    method of encouraging goal congruence by setting and communicating the financial performance measures by which managers will be evaluated
    return on investment (ROI)
    measure of the percentage of income generated by profits that were invested in capital assets
    revenue center
    part of an organization in which management is evaluated based on the ability to generate revenues; the manager's primary control is only revenues
    sales margin
    measure of how much profit is generated by each sales dollar
    someone affected by decisions made by a company; may include an investor, creditor, employee, manager, regulator, customer, supplier, and layperson
    owner of stock, or shares, in a business
    strategic plan
    broad vision of how a company will be in the future
    uncontrollable factor
    decision or outcome over which a manager does not have control
    weighted average cost of capital
    cost that the company expects to pay on average to finance assets and growth using either debt or equity

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