Skip to main content
Query

6.1: Uingiliano wa Biotic

  • Page ID
    165877
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \) \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)\(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)\(\newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)

    Uingiliano wa kibiotiki hutaja mahusiano kati ya viumbe. Wanaweza kuwa intraspecific (kati ya wanachama wa aina moja) au interspecific (kati ya wanachama wa aina tofauti). Wakati angalau mmoja wa waingiliano anaharibiwa, uhusiano huitwa upinzani. Uingiliano wa trophic, ambapo aina moja hutumia mwingine, ni kinyume. Ushindani ni uadui mwingine ambao spishi katika ngazi moja ya trophic (ambazo hula vitu vileile) huingiliana kupitia kutumia rasilimali zileile. Ushirikiano ambao angalau aina moja hufaidika na wala hauna madhara huitwa uwezeshaji, ambao unaweza kugawanywa kama commensalism au mutualism.

    Mboga yanayozunguka maji katika Seal Beach National Wanyamapori K

    Mwanga-Footed Clapper Reli amesimama katika maji matope karibu cordgrass
    Kielelezo\(\PageIndex{a}\): aina ya mwingiliano biotic kutokea miongoni mwa aina katika Seal Beach National Wanyamapori Refuge (juu). Kwa mfano, Reli ya Light-Footed Clapper (chini) faida kutoka cordgrass ambayo ni viota. Hata hivyo, wadudu kama vile mbweha nyekundu hudhuru ndege hii iliyohatarishwa. Kimbilio kinasimamia mwingiliano huu wa hatari kwa kufunga uzio ili kuwatenga mbweha nyekundu, ambayo kihistoria haikutokea katika eneo hilo. Picha ya juu na picha ya chini na Marekani Fish & Wanyamapori Service (uwanja wa umma).

    Attribution

    Iliyobadilishwa na Melissa Ha kutoka Jumuiya ya Ekolojia kutoka Biolojia ya Mazingira na Mathayo R. Fisher (leseni chini