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3.3: Kuelezea Hoja

  • Page ID
    165952
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    Mbadala wa vyombo vya habari

    Sikiliza toleo la sauti la ukurasa huu (dakika 3, sekunde 38):

    Mara tu tumeanzisha hoja tutaifupisha na kuelezea madai yake kuu, tutahitaji kuonyesha jinsi inavyounga mkono madai haya. Je, mwandishi anatuelekezaje katika mwelekeo wanaotaka tuende? Ingawa tulitumia mshale kwenye ramani ya hoja ili kuonyesha kasi kutoka kwa sababu ya kudai, tunaweza kutumia maneno kuashiria wazo ambalo linatumika kama sababu ya kudai.

    Mtu mwenye ndevu ameketi meza anaelezea kama kuelezea kitu kwa mtu karibu naye.
    Picha na Techvaran kwenye Pixabay chini ya Leseni ya Pixabay.

    Maneno ya Kuanzisha Sababu

    • Yeye sababu kwamba _____________.
    • Anaelezea hili kwa _____________.
    • Mwandishi anahakikishia hili kwa _____________.
    • Ili kuunga mkono mtazamo huu, mwandishi anasema kuwa _____________.
    • Mwandishi anasisitiza dai hili juu ya wazo kwamba _____________.
    • Wanasema kuwa _____________ ina maana kwamba _____________ kwa sababu _____________.
    • Anasema kuwa kama _____________, basi _____________.
    • Anasema kuwa _____________ inamaanisha kuwa _____________.
    • Anathibitisha wazo hili kwa _____________.
    • Anaunga mkono wazo hili kwa_____________.
    • Mwandishi anatoa ushahidi kwa namna ya_____________.
    • Wao nyuma hii juu na _____________.
    • Anaonyesha hii kwa _____________.
    • Anathibitisha majaribio ya kuthibitisha hili kwa _____________.
    • Wanasema masomo ya _____________.
    • Kwa misingi ya _____________, anahitimisha kuwa _____________.

    Ramani yetu ya hoja ya mpaka inaonyesha mlolongo wa sababu tatu zinazosababisha madai makuu, hivyo muhtasari wetu unaweza kuelezea mlolongo huo.

    Sababu ya kwanza “Tungependa kuhisi kuwa ni haki kuvuka mpaka bila ruhusa” iko katika sanduku lenye mshale ulio karibu nayo unaonyesha sababu inayofuata, “Tunapaswa kutambua kuvuka kinyume cha sheria kama kimaadili,” ambayo kwa upande ina mshale kutoka kwao akielezea sababu “kuta za mipaka na vituo vya kizuizini ni dhaalimu,” ambayo pointi kwa madai ya mwisho, “Tunahitaji sera mpya ambayo inatoa heshima na msaada kwa wahamiaji.”

    Mfano wa muhtasari

    Katika makala yake ya 2019 “Je, hatuwezi Wote Tuvuka Mpaka?” , Anna Mills anatuhimiza kutafuta sera mpya ya mpaka inayowasaidia wahamiaji wasiokuwa na nyaraka badala ya kuwafanya uhalifu. Anatoa wito kwa mabadiliko kuelekea heshima na huruma, akihoji wazo kwamba kuvuka kinyume cha sheria ni sahihi. Anasema kuwa mzazi yeyote aliye na msimamo mkali angeona kuwa ni haki ya kuvuka kwa ajili ya mtoto wao; kwa hiyo, hakuna mtu anayepaswa kuhukumu hatua hiyo kwa mwingine. Kwa kuwa hatuwezi kuhalalisha kuta zetu za sasa na vituo vya kizuizini, tunapaswa kuziondoa.

     

    Mazoezi Zoezi\(\PageIndex{1}\)

    For each pair of claims and reasons below, write a paraphrase of the reason and introduce it with one of the phrases from the chapter or another phrase that serves a similar purpose.  

    Here's an example.  Take the following claim and reason pair: “The right of free speech does not apply to speech that endangers public health. Therefore, Twitter should not allow tweets that promote medical claims that have been proven wrong.”

    A description of the reason might read as follows: "The writer bases this recommendation on the idea that we do not have a free-speech right to spread ideas that harm other people’s health."

    1. "Coffee jumpstarts the mind.  Therefore, students should embrace coffee to help them study."

    2. "Students should avoid coffee. Relying on willpower alone to study reinforces important values like responsibility and self-reliance."

    3. "Students should drink black tea rather than coffee because tea has fewer side effects."